Computer Vision Syndrome
Some important eye diseasesMaintaining healthy vision would require frequent visits to the eye doctor to detect eye problems and diseases, many of which do not manifest symptoms till very late. It is therefore essential to check one’s eye sight from time to time as the risk of developing eye diseases increases with age, with one in every 3 Americans above the age of 65 affected with some form of eye disease that could affect vision.
Some of the major eye diseases that could affect people are:
RETINAL EYE DISEASE: There are many diseases that could affect the retina of one’s eyes.
Retinal detachment occurs when the vitreous shrinks due to age. This may result in the retina becoming detached and leakage of fluid. This eye disease, if left untreated, could lead to impairment of vision. Early symptoms of the disease is characterised by sudden appearance of floaters and flashes of light. An eye disease doctor should be consulted immediately and surgery is generally suggested to prevent further damage to the retina.
Diabetic retinopathy is another condition that affects the retina of the eye. This eye disease is caused when the level of glucose increases to very high amounts resulting in the capillaries at the back of the eye becoming swollen and resulting in the leakage of fluid. This leakage of fluid could result in blurred vision. Leaving this untreated could result in the bursting of newly formed capillaries in the vitreous increasing blurring of vision.
Macular pucker or Epiretinal membrane is a scar tissue that forms over the macula of the eye. This is a mild disease and treatment is not always required, unless in severe cases when a virectomy is performed to remove the membrane.
Retinal tear is caused when the vitreous sags and pulls down the retina resulting in uneven flaps on the surface of the vitreous. This eye disease is characterized by the blurred vision. Timely treatment could prevent retinal tear.
Sagging vitreous could lead to a hole in the macula; this macula hole could lead to blurred or distorted vision. As the eye disease progresses, a black spot will appear in the field of vision corresponding to the hole on the macula. Vitrectomy should be performed to allow a bubble into the eye of the patient. When the patient looks down the bubble would press on the vitreous and promote its healing. The patient would be advised to look down for a period of 10 days to 2 weeks.
Age related macular degeneration is another eye disease that affects the retina of the eye. As the age of a person increases there is degeneration of the macula. This deterioration results in blurring of visions and the appearance of a black spot in the field of vision.
UVEITIS: There is inflammation of the uveal tract and the uvea. The uvea consists of the iris, ciliary body and the choroids. This disease is characterizes by pain and irritation in the eye along with increased sensitivity to light. Vision is blurred with the eyes red in colour.
Uveitis may be caused due to infection and in such cases anti biotics are prescribed to remove infection. In cases where uveitis is not caused by infection steroid drops are administered to reduce the swelling.
FUCH’s EYE DISEASE:This eye disease is characterised by water retention in the eye as the endothelial layer of the eye is affected. The endothelial layer helps remove water from the eye and so a disease that affects this layer results in storage of water in the eye, causing pain. In certain cases, increased amount of water in the eye results in the water coming out as corneal blisters. This hereditary eye disease would require corneal transplant to be carried out.
CHILD EYE DISEASE:There are many eye diseases that affect children and some of the important ones include
Conjunctivitis is the most common eye disease among children. It is also called “pink eye” due to the reddish appearance of the eyes during severe stages of the disease. This eye disease is characterised by increased tears, a yellowish discharge, and discomfort and itching. This may be caused due to a bacterial or viral infection and is extremely contagious. Using the patient’s towels, napkins or any other item handled by the patient could transmit the disease. The child afflicted with this disease should be allowed rest and prevented from playing with other children. Sensitivity to light may also be felt by the patient and in such cases dark glasses should be worn by the child.
Sty is another child eye disease that is commonly found and is caused due to Staphylococcal infections and is visible as a small pimple on the corner of one’s eye on the eye lid. The pus filled sty should never be squeezed and instead a hot compress should be applied. This will help reduce the intensity of the sty and provide relief. In certain extremely rare cases, the sty may spread and lead to further infection of the eye.
Blepharitis is a child eye disease that is caused due to insufficient nutrition and hygiene. This disease is characterized by swelling of the eye and loose flaky skin that resembles dandruff. Conjunctivitis and skin ulceration are commonly associated with this eye disease. The child should wash his eyes well in the morning and evening which would allow the disease to subside. In certain rare cases medication would be required to cure the disease.
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